2015年9月17日 星期四

台漁船疑似非法漁撈事件發酵? 諾魯頒布海域轉載禁令

2015年9月17日台北訊,廖靜蕙報導
綠色和平於上週10日揭露台灣籍漁船於公海涉嫌非法作業、違反鯊魚捕撈規定及非法轉載魚貨,我邦交國諾魯17日頒布禁令,禁止魚貨在該國水域上轉載,並呼籲其他島國響應,共同抵制外國籍漁船非法漁撈行為。這是繼馬紹爾、吐瓦魯後, 第三個禁止海上轉載的太平洋島國。
遭點名的「順得慶888號」究竟有無在太平洋公海違法?漁業署至今尚未到達該船所在地搜證,遠洋組組長林頂榮表示,預計一周內完成。
漁業署也認為,不能因諾魯的動作就認為和此事有關。不過,根據衛報報導與諾魯漁業與海洋資源署(NFMRA)的新聞稿, 兩者明顯相關。
「順得慶888號」因涉及公海違法作業,太平洋島國諾魯今發布禁令。照片提供:綠色和平。
綠色和平表示,上周於太平洋作業的「順得慶888號」,船上漁獲紀錄表上登載捕獲3隻、總重55公斤的水鯊,但在船艙內卻存放3袋、總重75公斤的鯊魚魚鰭,以實際數字估算,魚鰭最少來自於42隻鯊魚,明顯違反中西太平洋漁業管理委員會(Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission , WCPFC)鯊魚養護措施(CMM2010-07),鯊魚鰭重量不得超過鯊魚總重的5%的規定。

依中西太平洋漁業委員會和漁業署規定,海上轉載需事先通報、經核准後才能轉載,且轉載全程需由觀察員紀錄;綠色和平認為「順得慶888號」在未經通報下,已涉嫌將部份魚貨轉載到其他漁船。
綠色和平認為「順得慶888號」是在上週事件揭發後,才被加入中西太平洋漁船白名單,並質疑該漁船今年6月底至今的海上作業合法性令人質疑。
綠色和平指出,就結果而言,「順得慶888號」雖列入白名單,但也只代表准允撈捕,但轉載仍須向漁業署或WCPFC申請許可,然而,因為漁業署未確認該船是否已列入白名單,也未於該船5月出航時確認其身分,更遑論規範其海上行為,漁業署無法從這事件上逃避行政責任。
「為了打擊非法漁業,太平洋島國幾天內就採取具體措施加強管理,相較之下,台灣擁有龐大遠洋船隊,卻只是儘快處理,難以看出漁業署管好漁船的決心。」綠色和平專案主任羅可容說,台灣擁有全世界最多艘的遠洋延繩釣漁船,卻因茫茫大海中,監督不易,導致違反規範或非法行為頻傳。
非法、未通報、未規範(IUU)的漁業行為一直被視為威脅全球漁業資源的兇手,更導致每年 損失100億至230億美元;而海上轉載更是非法漁業的破口,甚至是非法漁船將魚貨洗白轉正的手段,嚴重危害合法作業漁船的權益。
諾魯官方表示,太平洋是鮪魚重要漁場,全球鮪魚有70%以上來自於太平洋,但卻只有不到20%的漁獲是由太平洋島國捕獲。很多像順德慶這樣的延繩釣船,利用海上轉載節省往返港口時間,爭取長期待在海上的時間以捕抓更多鮪魚。
他們期待透過禁令,改善過度捕撈,抑止海上轉載等難以監管的漏洞。

漁業署:一周內完成蒐證

「順得慶888號」有沒有違法轉載?雖然綠色和平提出影片指證歷歷,漁業署認為仍需進行蒐證才能釐清事實。漁業署也已在事件發生後,承諾調遣巡邏艦到場調查,但至今尚未到達該船所在地搜證。漁業署遠洋組組長林頂榮表示,預計一周內完成蒐證工作。
綠色和平則認為,漁業署根本不需要登船搜查,只要從「順得慶888號」過去幾個月的漁船監控系統,就能看出有沒有在海上跟其他漁船「靠近」涉嫌轉載、有沒有事先通報核准轉載等。
綠色和平強調,期望與漁業署合作,共同研議打擊非法漁 業及改善漁業管理的長期計畫;也要求漁業署公開「順得慶888號」調查過程和進度時間表,接受國際與大眾的檢視。
林頂榮表示,太平洋島國大多禁止其他國家在其海域轉載,諾魯這項禁定不能解讀與「順得慶888號」有關。該船出海作業是經過漁業署同意,但確實未申請轉載。
順德慶888漁工正在將捕獲的旗魚拉上甲板。(圖片來源:綠色和平組織)
根據衛報報導,NFMRA認為轉運是過漁主因,也是對鮪魚的最大威脅,而太平洋漁獲量有高達80%是被外國籍漁船取走,許多外國籍漁船刻意駐留在公海以規避各國政府的許可規費,但取走的漁獲卻超過核定配額,導致當地漁民漁獲減少,生計備感壓力。

割鰭棄身、不法轉載 順得慶888受監護返台

農委會漁業署18日發布新聞稿指出,經協請海巡署指派巡護9號巡護船前往南太平洋公海,於昨(17日)、今兩日對順得慶888號漁船執行登臨檢查,初步結果顯示,該船持有有效的漁業執照以及國外基地作業證明書,船體標識符合規定,漁船船位正常回報,但也查獲涉嫌違規行為。漁業署已勒令該船立即停止作業並協請巡護9號監護返台,並將依相關規定懲處。
漁業署指出,順得慶888號漁船自6月27日自東港出港,7月7日抵達太平洋第1號袋狀公海開始作業,該船雖證明經政府合法授權在中西太平洋作業,但經巡護9號現場檢查發現,船上留有總漁獲約10.4公噸,其中黃鰭鮪約5.4公噸,大目鮪約2公噸,與該船填寫之漁獲日誌(作業情形紀錄表)所登載數量差異極大。
而在鯊魚漁獲部分,僅魚體有鰭綁身5尾,其餘魚鰭有未綁身之胸鰭1片、背鰭1片、尾鰭4片、臀鰭104片(一尾有2片),因肉身與魚鰭數量不符,顯有將鯊魚漁獲割鰭棄身。
另該船涉嫌未經核准在海上轉載漁獲物等違規行為。回台後將進一步調查,釐清該船違規事項,並依相關漁業法規追究其違規行為責任,以落實管理。漁業署重申,決不護短。
【參考資料】
NFMRA新聞稿

Nauru declares ban on transhipment following Greenpeace bust

The Government of Nauru is pleased to announce that it has issued a blanket ban on all transhipments in our waters outside our port, following a Greenpeace bust of an illegal operation.
The move will help to end the laundering of fish and bring huge economic benefits to our people. 
Last week the Greenpeace ship Rainbow Warrior came across Taiwanese tuna longliner Shuen De Ching No.888, which appeared to be fishing without permission, in the high seas pocket that borders Nauru's EEZ.
On board the vessel, Greenpeace activists uncovered sacks containing 75 kilograms of shark fins from at least 42 sharks. Under Taiwanese law and Pacific fishing rules, shark fins may not exceed 5% of the weight of the shark catch, and with only three shark carcasses reported in the log book, the vessel was in clear violation of both.
As one of the countries that border the high seas, we also regularly observe longliners in the high seas acting suspiciously and intruding on our borders. These seas act like a safe haven for pirate boats, and transhipment allows them to stay at sea even longer, and launder fish out of the area. This has economic implications for Nauru and other Pacific Island countries.
Although more than 70% of the world’s tuna comes from the Pacific, only 20% of that is caught by Pacific Island fleets. And while purse seine license fees are an important source of revenue to many Pacific nations including Nauru, a significant proportion of the distant water longline fleets in the region fish on the high seas only, contributing little or nothing to local economies despite taking the most valuable fish from Pacific waters.
Government spokesperson Charleston Deiye, CEO of NFMRA says today’s move to ban transhipment in the Nauru EEZ will go a long way towards putting Pacific Island fisheries back in action. He says we are standing in solidarity with other Pacific countries that have already banned transhipment in their waters in an effort to bring longline fleets under the same control as purse seiners, which are only allowed to transfer their catches in port.
Transhipment involves longline boats transferring their catch to reefers, commonly called motherships, to be taken off overseas, and it’s one of the major causes of overfishing in Pacific waters.
The practice allows the longline fishing boats to stay out at sea fishing for tuna - sometimes for years at a time - without having to go back to land.
"Overfishing is the single biggest threat to the world’s largest tuna fisheries, and our residents have been feeling the pinch more sharply over the last few years. We can see that there are less fish for us because many of these unregulated foreign fishing vessels are taking more than their fair share and then selling it into international markets," Deiye says.
"They're putting the fishing industry out of business. We must protect our waters and our economy."
* For interviews, please contact Charleston Deiye, Chief Executive Officer of Nauru Fisheries and Marine Resources Authority : +674 5573733 ; cdeiye@gmail.com
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